LED Video Wall

Submitted by armatronix on Sun, 2012-09-23 10:28


Several months ago, I was approached by the Portland band Starfucker (STRFKR) to build them an LED video wall for their upcoming tour. It needed to be large, bright, and durable, but also lightweight, portable, and easy to set up and tear down. They wanted to be able to plug in an iPod or iPad and play videos that are synced up along with their click track so everything goes along perfectly with the music. I enlisted the help of Alex Norman to take care of the software side of the project, and got to work trying to figure this thing out. It seemed like it could be made with mostly off-the-shelf components, and indeed that turned out to be the case. We decided that we would open-source the entire project, for the good of all mankind.


It didn't take long to find Adafruit's Digital Addressable RGB LED w/ PWM waterproof flexi strip, which looked like a good, simple solution for the pixels and drivers, since they all come together on a flex circuit and all you have to do is provide power and "SPI-like" data and clock signals. The LEDs are very bright, and they come in 5-meter-long strips with 32 pixels per meter. We used a total of 192 meters of strips to create a 64x96 pixel display with a 2:1 aspect ratio. The screen size is 6-1/2' tall by 13' wide, the entire wall is 8'x13'.


Adafruit provides a suitable power supply for these, the 5V 10A switching power supply, which is good for 5m of LED strip at full-duty. I stretched it to 6m per PSU, because that made the physical layout work perfectly and I didn't expect they'd need to light up the wall full-white. We used 32 of these supplies to power the strips, each supply took care of three columns of pixels.

For the main structure of the wall, I found a polycarbonate panel made for use in greenhouses. It's very light-weight, structurally stiff, and nearly indestructible. Multi-Craft Plastics in Tigard has it in-stock locally, in up to 6'x24' size(!), in clear, bronze, and translucent milk colors. I chose the 16mm bronze triple-wall panel because its thickness makes it stiff enough for handling, and the bronze tint makes it fade into the background a little better without affecting the LED color much at all.

We used four 4'x8' panels, ordered ripped in half from Multi-craft so they would fit in my car, and then trimmed them down to 20" (24 cells) wide with a flush-trim router bit. I also bought sixteen 12' strips of polycarbonate U-profile to finish the edges after it was all done.

The real beauty of the 16mm triple-wall panels is that the cross-sectional cell size is perfect for the LED strips to fit inside.


In fact, all off the electronics except for the power supplies were designed to fit completely inside the panel. This made it a bit of a ship-in-a-bottle type of construction project, but the band wanted something that an excited fan could throw a beer all over without harming it or shorting anything out.

Before installing the electronics, however, I had to figure out how the wall could unfold to support itself without needing the usual truckload of space trusses. I suspected that by connecting the panels tightly with cord and curving the wall, it would be able to support itself stably without needing anything in the way of external supports. An 1/8-scale model proved the concept:


And here it is full-size:


1-1/4" conduit tensioned by cam straps provide the curvature. I used 1/8" dacron cord (500-lb breaking strength) to connect the panels together, lash them to the conduit, and cross-tension the corners for rigidity. There's a clever little cord tensioner/carabiner combo called a Figure-9, which does very nicely to tighten everything up. It's basically a mechanical version of a trucker's hitch, but easier to tie.

So, confident about the structural integrity, it was time to prepare the panels to receive the electronics. I made a couple of router/drill templates to cut out holes in the front face for wiring and for the power supplies to sit in.


Then I drilled long 1/4" holes from the sides to accept bus wires for the power. It may seem like I could have made life easier by just routing out large swaths of panel and stuffing everything from the front, but that would have destroyed the structural integrity of the panels so I tried to keep as much of the front face intact as possible and only cut into single cells wherever I could.

Each panel gets a female XLR (microphone) jack to receive data. XLR is nice because it has three conductors so we could have Clock, Data, and Ground to each panel. It's also nice because the cables are easy to find on the road, in case one develops a bad connection. But they're also very robust connectors. The clock and data lines enter the first LED strip, and then zig-zag across the panel from left to right.


Here's a detail showing the internal wiring. You can see the bus wires going across. I used 16 gage bare copper wire for the 5V DC and ground lines above the power supplies, and 12 gage for AC across the bottom. Each panel has a male and female (not shown) electrical jack so the AC supply can be daisy-chained between panels. Besides the fact that all the soldering had to be done "thru-hole," the electronics on this is really simple. Disclaimer: I'm not sure the Underwriter's Laboratories would love everything I did here, but I tried my best to make sure it's safe. BTW this thing sucks about 15A of juice, at full load.

(If I had this to do again, I think I'd design circuit boards to accept all of the wiring, instead of doing this bus wire concept. It would have made life a lot easier.)

After soldering and testing each panel, I taped over the holes with two layers of gaffer's tape. Then I cut U-channel to go all around the outside edge. I also gaffed the U-channel on, so the whole wall can be very easily disassembled for repair. Basically, the whole thing is held together with tape, string, and cable ties.

The control box is the last part. When we first started this project and were playing around with the LED strips at a Dorkbot meeting, Paul Stoffregen told us that he had already written some optimized code for Teensy++ which would accept 64-bit USB data packets and redistribute the data to eight data lines from the Teensy++, while also sending out clock from eight clock lines. He had developed it exactly for this very purpose, in fact, which was lucky for us and no doubt saved Alex a bit of head-scratching. Thanks Paul!

So the Teensy++ gets 100-ohm resistors on each line, which then connect to an XLR patch panel to go out to the wall. I made a cable loom with all the right lengths of XLR cable to make it really easy to set up.


Also inside the box is a USB video capture device which runs from the iOS A/V cable into a mini-PC to do the video processing and send data to the Teensy++.

I'll let Alex go into the details of the software side of things...


img (this was Alex right before he added the gamma correction)

HERE'S A VIDEO OF TEAR-DOWN AT THAT FIRST SHOW. I tidied up everything before the next show, so everything looks a bit sloppy here and it takes longer than it needs to. Still, not too bad for the first time ever.

Here it is all packed up, I should weigh it for real but I'm guessing it's around 80 lbs total:


Look, it fits in my Acura:


All in all, it was a really fun and rewarding project, the band was great to work with, and everybody was really happy with the results. But, most importantly, we learned stuff.


If there's interest, I can go into more detail about the construction process - please leave comments below if there's more you want to know. I'm not really planning on doing a full step-by-step unless somebody wants to pay me to do it, but I'm more than happy to provide more info if anybody else wants to tackle this one.



(Rhino .3dm CAD file is zipped below)

Tue, 2012-10-09 23:04    [Permalink]


What is it's bandwidth. I've watched the youtube videos but you don't play any video. Is it capable of displaying video in real time?

I'd be interested in seeing what such a video looks like.....if it's possible.




Mon, 2013-03-25 10:25    [Permalink]

DJ Wildfire

How much would it cost for a step by step, or something a bit more discriptive than what you have here. Also, what would the ramifications, if any, of shortening the build to around 4' - 5', I'm thinking more along the lines of a DJ frontboard.

Hello ! 

I a student in an engineering school in France and i am building my own led video wall. Thank you for sharing your project with all mankind :) I found a way to minimize the bill if you (or any other person) are interested in :

- use a computer power supply (it's cheaper and you can have 5v - 20A for 20-25$)
- use à Raspberry Pi "instead" of the mini PC that you used (45$ max)
- buy the LED in china through aliexpress ; sometimes you ve got bad surprises, like 158 led instead of 160, but it's considerably cheaper (25-30$ for 5 meters strip)

I hope mine will work as well as yours :) 

Again : thank you ! 

Awesome build!! Thanks for taking the time to post this.  Shutong, did you ever end up building one?  I'm also looking at options to minimize the bill, and to do a few things differently, according to armatronix's and your suggestions.  I have a couple of questions, please don't mind my noobness.  

For the power supplies, I am looking at computer supplies that output 600w.  The newer LEDs that are on ebay operate at 12V and draw 2A per 5 meters.  If I do the math correctly, that's 50A per supply, only requiring me to purchase 4 supplies. Any issue with having these supplies off the wall, and connected with jack/plug connections?  

I'm looking at the RGB LEDs that sell for cheap on ebay.  They have 60 LEDs per meter. Will this mess up anything visually, seeing as there is almost twice the pixels vertically and the same horizontally? I wouldn't think so, but again, I know very little on the subject.

Because the LEDs are encased in polycarbonate, do the LED's need to be the waterproof kind? I have the option of getting the non-waterproof ones for a little cheaper.  

Hey guys, I am really interested in building a small scale LED video panel and interested in minimizing the cost. Basically, just one the panels of this video panel(2'x8') wall and have some minor questions and maybe hoping I can achieve this one panel working LED panel for $300-$500(I prefer as cheap as possible but has the brighness and programming I'm looking for).

1) Did you guys find working/cheaper computer power supply that works for this project?
2) Did you find another RGB LED strip that's comparable, maybe one from China?
3) What type of programming do I have to use to run this stuff? Can I use Arduino with Teensy? I'm on a Mac.

Dan Beeson and Shutong can you chime in and let me know if you have been sucessful at this? I'd like to ask some questions, as this will be my first LED/programming project.

I'd like to compile a list of all the parts w/ links I need to build this one panel and send to one of you guys to verify that is everything required to make a working panel. It seems this is using a microphone to take sound in and display LEDs with music, but it would be cool to send some existing video to the panel if i can have both options.

I estimated from Armtronix material costs for one of the panels would cost around $900-$1000.

If you have time, can you email me at: alex@visaomedia.com Thanks.

Wed, 2013-09-04 15:24    [Permalink]


I love this project! Ive been working on something similar. Tricky stuff.

great work!

I wonder if you were doing the build now, would you go the same route? Just curious...

Glad to see you're still doing music Hans! I checked out your HFL page cool stuff!


-Isaac from SLO

   Hello there.

   I'm trying to build a large LED Display to show ads, videos, pictures, for digital facades and showcases with LED Strips 5050 LPD8806 and Teensy 3.1 but I don't know how to start with teensy.

   I didn't found any "How to start" guide on teensy forum.

   Do you sell a DIY Tutotial for I use with reference to build my display?

   I have a matrix of 52x30 pixels.

   Please help me, rumenigg@gmail.com.

  Thank you.

Sat, 2015-06-27 03:18    [Permalink]


Hi Guys!

this is my first comment and its great to find this page!

I run a company in the UK  http://www.dynamo-led-displays.co.uk and we specialise in LED video walls. We have been involved in some amazing projects including putting screens like the one shown in this thread on to hot air balloons and blimps as well as creating a double decker bus covered in LEDs. What amazes me most here is the fact these LEDs are being run from the likes of teensy, adafruit and arduino! 

Can these LED displays show full colour video or do they not have the ability to show enough grey scale? Also what kind of refresh rates can they reach?

https://mobile.twitter.com/dynamoled/status/575301516669620224 This is a photo of the blimp at Cheltenham festival.

A photo of our London double decker LED video bus.

LED Video Bus